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  • Distintion between Militarisation and Weaponisation of Outer Space, A Misleading Concept

    Paper number



    Dr. Ali Akbar Golrounia, Aerospace Research Institute, Iran


    Prof. Mohsen Bahrami, Aerospace Research Institute, Iran



    The Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty (OST) Prohibits to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install weapons on celestial bodies or stations such weapons in Outer Space in any other manner and clearly indicate that the Moon and other Celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purpose also the establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of military manoeuvres on celestial bodies shall be forbidden.
    After September 11, 2001, Terrorist attacks in United States. Security became the most important issue in space faring states specially United States and they are using space technology to protect their national interest. Use of space based technology for military purposes seem to be inevitable. In order to overcome the prohibition in Art. IV Of the OST many of these states giving a different interpretation for Militarisation and Weaponisation in Outer Space and try to distinguish between these two subjects.
    When Commercialisation and Privatisation of activities in Outer Space became inevitable, the OST and other treaties related to activities in Outer Space were interpreted in such a manner which these treaties permit such activities. It seems the same rational and methodology are used to interpretate the Militarization and Weaponisation of Outer Space, despite the fact that the first interpretation is inline with the merit of the Treaties which is the concept of "Peaceful use of Outer Space " ,but the second interpretation for sure is not in the same line.
    This paper tries to shed some lights on these issues.   
    Abstract document


    Manuscript document

    IAC-08.E8.3.6.pdf (🔒 authorized access only).

    To get the manuscript, please contact IAF Secretariat.